All data has been compiled via public sources or freedom of information requests to the relevant European Union or national institutions. Data may be incomplete or missing; some agencies or countries still haven’t responded to us, months later. Spreadsheets have been reformatted in order to fit into this data platform. If you see any errors, typos, translation issues or other problems, please get in touch: firstname.lastname@example.org.
The Internal Security Fund (ISF) was in place from 2014 to 2020 and had two components: Internal Security Fund - Police (worth approximately €1.2 billion); and Internal Security Fund - Borders and Visa (worth almost €2.8 billion).
Some €350 million of the police component and around €1 billion of the borders component was managed directly by the European Commission. It was spent on a broad range of topics, ranging from anti-corruption measures to supporting civil society projects. However, it also funded work with human rights and civil liberties implications.
The remaining €750 million (police) and around €1.8 billion (borders) was distributed amongst EU member states and spent in accordance with national plans. For example, to develop the EUROSUR border surveillance system, to implement the Passenger Name Record (PNR) system of air travel surveillance, or to construct the Entry/Exit System for monitoring border crossings.
The data on the ISF included in this platform covers 18 EU member states and direct European Commission spending. It comes from the European Commission website, the EU’s funding database, the EU Financial Transparency System, national government websites and freedom of information requests. Some member states did not respond to our requests for information; the UK and Denmark did not participate in the ISF. Member states that did not respond (as of March 2021) are:
Horizon 2020 was the EU’s research and innovation budget from 2014 to 2020, with an overall budget of some €77 billion. The security research component, which had a total budget of €1.7 billion, focused on “understanding, detecting, preventing, deterring, preparing and protecting against security threats.”
The program focused heavily on developing and deploying new technologies such as biometrics, drones, surveillance systems and data-mining tools. Funding was generally provided to projects undertaken by consortiums made up of different groups of organisations, such as private companies (ranging from transnational corporations to small businesses), research and education institutions, and state ministries and agencies (such as police forces or border control agencies).
The Seventh Framework Program for research and development (FP7, 2007-13) was the precursor to Horizon 2020, and the FP7 security research budget was smaller, at €1.3 billion.
Projects funded through both programs have occasionally come into the public eye due to their controversial nature: for example, INDECT, TALOS, PROTECT, iBorderCtrl or the multitude of projects developing drone technology.
The data in this platform on Horizon 2020 and FP7 comes from the EU’s Open Data Portal. The data used here for both programs is a combined subset of the full datasets, which cover a wide range of research themes apart from security.
To suggest data for inclusion in this database or future expansions of the Open Security Data project, please contact us at: email@example.com